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英国留学生论文代写_母语老师代写,专业水平

  
 
  本文是英国留学生论文代写范文:创新是科技进步的主要来源,主要内容讲述了科技进步过程中创新的重要性。

 
英国论文代写,留学生论文代写
  DueEssay留学生代写平台,是一家专业高品质的论文代写机构,拥有10年的代写经验,只用高品质的代写水平为您服务assignment代写,Essay代写,网课代修,我们只保A保B,为您的学业保驾护航,如果您对自己的论文水平不太自信,可以直接找我们客服咨询!
 
  Innovation is the prime source of technological advancement
 
  “今天的世界被分裂了,不再是由于意识形态,而是技术……地球人口的15%,提供了几乎世界上所有的技术创新……一半世的界人口,可以在生产和消费上采用这些技术。剩下的部分,覆盖了世界上三分之一的人口,是技术上断开连接,无论是国内创新还是采用外国技术。”
 
  根据1990年的增长理论,“创新是科技进步的主要来源……进而推动经济增长”。主要动机之一,促进发展中国家广泛接受和鼓励FDI各种渠道吸收溢出国外公司的技术。硬技术(工业过程、设备和植物)或软技术(技术、管理理念、营销技能等)由跨国企业(跨国公司)被认为是经济发展和经济增长的主要来源。
 
  当一个跨国公司与发展中国家的公司垂直整合时,这些公司在主机市场被迫遵守外资质量严格的指导和标准,以确保产品或服务的上游原材料或服务。外国公司将指导和协助,同时增强服务质量由当地子公司提供管理和技术上的帮助。国内竞争对手公司提高他们的产品,保持跟上市场的外国附属公司从而提高东道国企业的生产力。基于美国最大的零售商,沃尔玛的进入和中国的快速扩张,已帮助物流行业在中国市场爬更高层次。
 
  对于发展中国家在全球经济中开拓利基市场,他们需要技术先进。有可能从外国引进新技术来开发市场,来使其现代化;
 
  "Today's world is divided no longer by ideology but by technology...15%of the earth's population,provides nearly all of the world's technology innovations...half of the world's population,is able to adopt these technologies in production and consumption.The remaining part,covering around a third of the world's population,is technologically disconnected,neither innovating at home nor adopting foreign technologies."Sachs(2000)
 
  According to the Growth theory of the 1990's,"Innovation is the prime source of technological advancement...which in turn drives economic growth".One of the prime motives,host developing countries widely accept and encourage various channels of FDI is to absorb the technological spill over from the foreign country firms.The Hard Technologies(industrial processes,equipment and plant)or Soft Technologies(technical know-how,management ideas,marketing skills etc)(Dunning and Lundan 2008)contributed by Multi-national Enterprises(MNEs)are considered the main source of economic development and growth.
 
  When a multinational firm vertically integrates with the developing country firms,the firms in host market are forced to abide by the MNE's strict guidance and standards to ensure quality goods or services in the form of raw materials or upstream services.The foreign firms would guide and assist,both managerially and technically which would lead to enhancement of the quality of service by the local affiliates.The domestic rival firms enhance their offerings to keep in pace with the foreign affiliated firms in the market thus enhancing the host country firms'productivity.The biggest US based retailer,Wal-Mart's entry and rapid expansion in China has helped the logistics industry in Chinese market to climb higher level Zhu(2010).
 
  For developing countries to carve their niche in the global economy,they need to be technologically advanced.There is a possibility of importing new technology from foreign developed market,but for this to materialize;the developing countries should have sufficient funds to pay the expensive amount due to currency difference.Also countries will find themselves alienated from the advancement of technologies if they can't develop export markets,Sachs(2008).This can be minimised to a considerable extent by MNEs'trickle down'effect wherein transfer of technological skills from developed countries to developing countries occurs through FDI.The transfer of Panasonic's microwave manufacturing base from United States to China has led to the presence of 2800 Chinese enterprises to provide components for it,which has not only contributed new technology,but also advanced operations management techniques to Chinese market(Sinani and Meyer 2004).

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