这其中有不同的原因，国际工作人员转移,可以作为控制的结果,协调当地发展管理、缺乏技能的人员和组织发展。这将导致增加公司的潜在的成功和在国际市场上竞争(Edstrom and Galbraith, 1977; Harzing, 2001). 然而,学者们还指出,知识共享通过国际转移的成功并不是自动进行的,而是取决于社会过程。最近指出,关键人员转移的理由是由于进步和技术知识的转移(Bonache et al., 2001; Hocking et al., 2004).
Over the past decades, an inconsiderable amount of research has dealt in the field of managing and reducing employee turnover in international staffing practice. In this study, which appraise staffing policies in International Human Resource and issues relating to employee turnover of local manger in subsidiaries of Multi-national Corporations. This paper evaluates series of issue encountered by the local or subsidiary manager. Hereby consider the role and patterns of international staffing model, the advantages and disadvantages of Parent country national (PCN), Host country national (HCN), retention strategies and approach used in managing avoid staff turnover. in this regard, has examined possible way-out of the present dilemma encountered by the local or subsidiaries mangers and the way forward but might vary in different sectors and culture of a country or probable the culture of the Multi-National Corporation.
国际人力资源模型的功能和模式——Function and Pattern of International Staffing Model
There are different reasons for international staff transfer which can be as a result of control, co-ordination, developing management, unskilled local personnel and organization development. Which will lead to the increase of company's potential to succeed and compete in the international market (Edstrom and Galbraith, 1977; Harzing, 2001). However, Scholars have also pointed out that the success of knowledge sharing through international transfers is not automatic but rather depends on social processes. In recent it has been pointed out that key rationale for staff transfer is due to the transfer of advance and technical knowledge (Bonache et al., 2001; Hocking et al., 2004).
However, staff transfer is a two- sided magnitude, which is between the Head quarter and the subsidiaries and it also involve the process comprises parent-country nationals (PCNs), host-country nationals (HCNs) and third-country nationals (TCNs) (Harzing, 2001; Welch, 2003). In this regard, Head quarters organization that are sent to HCNs and TCNs they are commonly referred to as Expatriates and vice versa for the inpatriates.
Perlmutter and Heenan (1969; 1979) identified four different international staffing policies
(ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric and regiocentric). MNCs following an ethnocentric staffing policy would appoint mostly parent country nationals to top positions at their subsidiaries, while MNCs following a polycentric staffing policy would prefer to appoint host country nationals (HCNs). Organisation with a geocentric staffing policy might simply pick the best person, regardless of his/her nationality and that could include third country nationals (TCNs), nationals of a country other than the MNC's home country and the country of the subsidiary.
The Head quarter-centric nature of the staffing policies has been criticised by Novicevic and Harvey.H (2001) introduced a pluralistic orientation that enable a multiple, diverse and possibly competition which subsidiaries are given more orientations of subsidiary staffing that independent operation within the MNC context. The pluralistic orientation also brought about an alternative concept and a harmony orientation toward international staffing. Thereby indicated a tranquillity between subsidiaries and the Head quarters which is as result of integrative aspect.
Pro and Cons of PCNs, HCNs or TCNs
These are some of the advantages and disadvantages of employing these different groups of employees. It is shown that none of the options is without its disadvantages whereby will focus on some of the most frequently mentioned advantages and disadvantages (Negandhi, 1987; Phatak, 1989; Dowling, Festing, & Engle, 2008) are summarized as follows. In Table 7.1 below
Source: Harzing and Reiche 2009.
影响子公司员工流动率——Influences on Subsidiary Staff Turnover
Sebastian .R, (2007). Classified two major factors that lead to subsidiary staff turnover which is as a result of the effect of international staffing practices. He then conceptualise it has perceived career advancement opportunities and their organizational identification. Figure 1 shows the integration of all variables in a framework due to the effect of international staffing practices on subsidiary staff retention.
子公司员工的职业发展机会——Career Opportunities of Subsidiaries Staff
These involves situation where the organisation seems to make global exposure and career advancement as part of the employment contract with the local national, but the organisation at the end of the day fail to fulfil their promise and with the design of international staffing practices that has an effect on subsidiary staff's career perspective and also leads to employee turnover .which aligns with (Griffeth et al., 2000; Hom and Griffeth, 1995) turnover studies and (Birdseye and Hill, 1995; Feldman and Thomas, 1992; Naumann, 1992) expatriate turnover research. Recent literature has focused on the view that a huge number of foreign expatriates distorted HCNs' career advancement opportunities and create sizeable income and status disparities, leading to frustration and dissatisfaction among locals. In regards, the ethnocentric staffing practices which is a one-sided approach that restrict career advancement of local staff to a mere lower manger position. Sebastian Reiche (2007).
组织识别子公司——Organizational Identification of Subsidiaries
This involves situation whereby the international staffing practices affects the subsidiary staff in relation to the identity of their organization (Dutton et al., (1994) The degree at which a member defines himself by the same feature that he or she believes defines the organization. This has been shown to exert a negative effect on turnover intentions (Koh and Goh, 1995; Van Dick et al., 2004).
The fulfilment of career aspirations is considered to serve as a key antecedent of organizational identification (Brown, 1969; Reade, 2001). In an organization which consist multiple relationship, each with unique set of values and objective operating from different sources of membership and identification, sustains the notion that individuals' experience multiple commitments or identifications (March and Simon, 1958; Reichers, 1985).
The polycentric staffing practices mainly shows identification with the local unit. At the same time, might be identified with the global company and it more difficult to promote. As Lawler (1992) notes, identification tends to be more significant with regard to association in contrast to larger organisation and also in the case of a geocentric orientation international career progression may only involve a very small fraction of HCNs.
Finally, (Novicevic and Harvey, 2001) pluralistic orientation to international staffing serves as an additional source of identification of a harmonizing approach helps to constitute respective Head quarters policies and practices within it subsidiary which, in turn, facilitates HCNs' approval and thus enhances their identification.
The staffing retention strategies are of two dimensions namely subsidiary management. Which will help minimize staff turnover in the subsidiaries such as managing subsidiaries through local staff and the expatriation of local staff may help to retain employees in MNCs' worldwide operations. Hereby the strategies for the suitable scenario.
当地子公司管理人员——Subsidiary Management Through Local Staff
This involves pluralistic and harmony approach to international staffing that help to reconcile individual and organizational career plans, thereby tying individuals' career commitment to the company and hence fostering long-term membership.
Global assignments of PCNs which is to be maintained effectively by socializing. This becomes an essential instrument for clearing out dispute between local and foreign personnel (Lueke and Svyantek, 2000).